Foster, D. S., & Thatcher, R. W. (2015). Surface and LORETA neurofeedback in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and mild traumatic brain injury. In Z Score Neurofeedback (pp. 59-92).
This study is a report of an on-going project that provides treatment for US combat veterans. Both PTSD and mild-traumatic brain injury involves a wide range of possible neural dysregulations, and thus, the authors posit that maximal treatment outcome will result from optimal specificity of assessment and treatment. In this study, 11 cases are analyzed and it is found that Loreta Z-Score neurofeedback results in specific neurophysiological normalization in the regions of training and quantified progressive reduction in symptoms. Paired t-tests demonstrate learning occurred in every case. Cohen’s d analyses of current source density improvements quantified large effect sizes in 9 of 10 cases and a moderate effect size in one case.
Kolk, B. A., Hodgdon, H., Gapen, M., Musicaro, R., Suvak, M. K., Hamlin, E., et al. (2016). A randomized controlled study for neurofeedback for chronic PTSD. PLOS ONE, 14(4), e0215940. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0215940.
This study was a randomized, waitlist controlled trial of brain/computer interaction, electroencephalogram neurofeedback training in patients with chronic PTSD to explore the capacity of neurofeedback to reduce PTSD symptoms and increase affect regulation capacities. 52 individuals with chronic PTSD were randomly assigned to neurofeedback or waitlist (control) groups. After 24 sessions of neurofeedback were conducted, it was found that participants in the neurofeedback group treatment showed significant improvements in PTSD symptomatology that had not responded to at least 6 months of trauma-focused psychotherapy, compared to the waitlist group that continued to receive treatment as usual.
Gapen, M., Kolk, B. A., Hamlin, E., Hirshberg, L., Suvak, M., & Spinazzola, J. (2016). A pilot study of neurofeedback for chronic PTSD. Applied psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 41(3), 251-261. The authors examine the reason behind why neurofeedback has made such little impact on approaches to clinical care, noting that designing research to measure clinical change in the real world presents itself as a barrier. As such, this paper offers a “proof-of-concept” pilot for the use of neurofeedback with multiply-traumatized individuals with treatment-resistant PTSD. After completing 40 sessions of neurofeedback training over the course of 2 weeks, the authors found that their protocol significantly reduced PTSD symptoms and preceded gains in affect regulation.
Reiter, K., Andersen, S. B., & Carlsson, J. (2016). Neurofeedback treatment and posttraumatic stress disorder: effectiveness of neurofeedback on posttraumatic stress disorder and the optimal choice of protocol. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 204, 69-77. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000418.
In this review, the authors reviewed the evidence on effectiveness and preferred protocol for neurofeedback treatments geared towards PTSD. After a systematic review of five major databases was undertaken, namely PubMed, PsychInfo, Embase, and Cochrane databases; 5 studies were singled out to form the basis of this review. From this, the authors conclude that neurofeedback is probably an efficacious for ptsd treatment.
Ghaziri, J., Tucholka, A., Larue, V., Blanchette-Sylvestre, M., Reyburn, G., Gilbert, G., . . . Beauregard, M. (2013). Neurofeedback Training Induces Changes in White and Gray Matter. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 44(4), 265-272. doi:10.1177/1550059413476031
In this study, Health university students were randomly assigned to the experimental group, sham group or control group. Participants in the experimental group trained to enhance beta waves at F4 and P4. Attentional performance and MRI data were recorded one week before training and one week after training. Higher scores on auditory and visual sustained attention were present in experiment group. Gray matter volume increases were detected in cerebral structures involved in this type of attention. This study constitutes the first empirical demonstration that neurofeedback training leads to microstructural changes in white and gray matter.